The monetary system of economy
Due to the fact that during the period from 1949 to 1960, the purchasing prices increased 11-27 times, the need for monetary reform. The denomination of the ruble ratio of 10: 1 was held 01/01/1961, the sample banknotes were introduced one thousand nine hundred sixty-one of denominations of 1, 3, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 rubles., As well as coins in denominations of 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 50 kopecks. 1 rub. All the old paper money during January-March of one thousand nine hundred sixty-one was exchanged for new ones. We exchange only small coins in denominations of 3, 2 and 1 cop. It was recalculated deposits, wages, government debt and sets the state of parity of the ruble against foreign currencies. The magazine “Crocodile” pleased readers funny pictures, which knocked out the Soviet ruble and the US dollar crept fearfully to the pound sterling. However, in reality such optimism was not unfounded. To any strengthening of the ruble expensive currency reform failed.
Of course, the state could not do without, so when you change the scale of prices is not to make the rounding in their favor. Prices of some goods increased slightly. Thus, the postcard at the old prices cost 25 kopecks., And on the new – 3 kopecks. Talking on the phone booth at the old prices cost 15 kopecks., And on the new – 2 kopecks. Also increased prices for the matches, needles, envelopes for letters etc. At the same time the government has taken a series of measures from which the population get the win. So, were abolished fees for postal and telegraph forms, premium to the price of stamps, postcards and envelopes when selling them outside the mail more per km charge in the cities for the use of a telephone, a reduced price for in-vehicle radios and others. In most cases, the state also benefits from the mayor.
Immediately after the currency reform began the fall of the ruble. This was due to an imbalance between commodity and money supply in an environment preserved the old system of financing and subsidies. The most serious was the situation in agriculture. Sent him billions of new rubles contributed to the growing income of the population, but have not led to an increase in agricultural production and reduce production costs. Furthermore, the loss-making steel not only individual companies, but also the whole industry. Thus, the cost per hundredweight of cattle in 1961 was 88 rubles., And the purchase price – 59.1 rubles.
Cost of hundredweight of pork – 118 rbl., And the purchase price – 82.3 rubles. Cost of birds – 133.5 rubles. And the purchase price – 82.2 rubles. In this regard, in 1962 the purchase prices for meat products were raised by 35%, while consumer prices – 30%. In 1963 it was decided to raise the price of coal for 37-38% of oil products – by 5%, sawnwood – by 13%. However, this was only given impetus to unleash inflation, new prices for agricultural products and fuels automatically lead to unprofitability of light industry. Therefore, in January 1964, had to be revised and the price of light industry products, in order to eliminate unprofitable production.
The fall in the purchasing power of the ruble has questioned its solvency in international payments. This led to a sharp narrowing of the scope of the ruble as a means of circulation inside the country and abroad. To leave the Soviet citizens were restrictions on the exchange of rubles into foreign currency. And inside the country began to operate so-called. “Birch” ruble – Vneshposyltorg checks that were used in the calculations in the network of shops “Birch”. Of course, restrictions on the exchange of rubles, and the establishment of a parallel ruble could not cause the creation of the illegal sphere of private services, the state pursued with extreme brutality. This repression often go beyond the law.
But, of course, the measures taken by the authorities to those who have to change rubles for foreign currency prevoskhodily all imagination. More NS Khrushchev was too liberal outraged by the verdict against “money changers” (up to 15 years with confiscation) and ordered to replace it with his own shot. Such punishments for currency exchange, the Criminal Code did not provide for, but the sentence was carried out.
By the end of 1970 – beginning of 1980. “commodity socialism” finally come to a standstill. Neither the trade or industry or in transport has not been possible to operate without any of these or other violations of ethical standards, instructions, and even articles of the Criminal Code. For example, an ordinary employee of the store could not get the running goods without a bribe, or the head of a commodity database management. After receiving the goods, he could not deliver it to the store and unload baggage handlers without a bribe. Unload the goods, he could not sell it without obveshivaniya or sales at inflated prices, as part of the goods had already gone over to the side, or was spent on bribes. The system has outlived its usefulness.